We’re excited to share the beautiful UNC Asheville area with you at this year’s Symposium. Tucked away in a beautiful location with on-site lodging next to the local botanical garden, attendees have the option of spending quiet time in nature or exploring downtown Asheville just minutes away.
NEW! We’ve moved to a 3-day event. Earn CE, reconnect with friends and explore the Botanical Gardens all while returning home in time for Monday.
Medicines from the Earth officially starts with a welcome reception on Friday night, followed by speaker introductions and the Keynote Address with Chris Kilham. Lectures, demonstrations and herb walks take place Saturday and Sunday, with the Symposium concluding Sunday at 5:40 PM. We look forward to a vibrant weekend of herbal learning and connecting with the community!
Date: June 2 – 4, 2023
Location: UNC Asheville in Asheville, NC
Theme: Aging, Stress and Neurological Conditions: Tradition and Modern Science
Highlights: 24 lectures to choose from, including two panels, herb walks and demonstrations, plus Friday intensives and field studies, a keynote address with Chris Kilham, plus an evening concert with Doug Elliott and friends.
Those who register and attend the symposium in person receive:
- Attendance at live lectures June 2 – 4 (Friday events, CE fee, lodging and meals are extra)
- Streaming of all videos made at the symposium for 6 months (except outdoor sessions which won’t be recorded)
- Full set of audio recordings to own
- Digital lecture notes to own
- By February 22: $369
- By April 6: $439
- After April 6: $499
Cancellations: By May 11, registration fees will be refunded minus $50 processing per registrant. No refunds can be given after 5/11/23. Refund requests should be emailed to the conference office.
Registration fee covers all lectures, panel discussions and other group meetings. Extra fees for intensives, continuing education, lodging and meals.
Scholarships: In recognition of the need for diversity in the fields of clinical herbalism and naturopathic medicine, the conference is offering a limited number of full scholarships to persons of color (Black, Indigenous, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian-American) who are not yet practitioners and would like to further their education in the clinical uses of botanical medicine. Details
PRE-SYMPOSIUM EVENTS ON FRIDAY, JUNE 2
- Morning Intensive: Bridging the Gap between Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Modern Biomedical Analysis with Jason Miller, DACM, LAc ($89)
- Afternoon Intensive: Botanical Influences on Cell Membranes with Jillian Stansbury, ND ($89)
- All Day Field Study: Ethnobotanical and Native Plant Field Study with David Winston, RH (AHG) ($79)
- Afternoon Mountain Gardens Tour and Demonstration: Ecology, Propagation and Cultivation of Native and Oriental Medicinal Herbs at Mountain Gardens with Joe Hollis ($69)
FEATURED PRESENTATIONS JUNE 3 – 4
Botanical medicine integrated with the latest research, including topics on Aging, Stress and Neurological Conditions: Tradition and Modern Science. 24 lectures including:
- Using Medicinal Mushrooms Synergistically with Botanicals
- Senescence, Senolytics and Aging
- Peru’s Sacred Plant Boom and Sustainability
- We are Stardust: Trace Elements as Building Blocks of Health
- Parallels between the TCM Principle of Essence and Modern Genetics: From Analog to Digital
- Case Studies in the Naturopathic Management of Neurodegenerative Conditions
- Mast Cells: Their Role in Health and Disease and Botanical Affectors
Lodging and Meals at University of North Carolina Asheville
UNC Asheville, 1 University Heights, Asheville, NC 28804
Lodging and meal packages start at $343 for two nights lodging and 6 meals.
If you’re staying off-campus, commuter meals are also available for $109 for the weekend.
Lodging at UNCA is located in the student apartments, conveniently situated between Highsmith Union where lectures take place and the firepit where we’ll share stories and music Saturday evening.
Each apartment offers private single bedrooms with a shared bath (with one other person of the same gender), and a common kitchen and living room area. Linens are provided.
Pre-Conference Events on Friday, June 3
Symposium registration required to attend these extra events, plus extra fee. Choose up to two that don’t overlap!.
9:00 AM – 12:00 PM
Intensive: Bridging the Gap between Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Modern Biomedical Analysis ($89)
Jason Miller, DACM, LAc
As a Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine and an advanced practitioner of botanical medicine based on biomedical testing and research, Jason Miller is uniquely qualified to bridge the gap between TCM macroecology and modern medical analysis. In this intensive he presents a series of three modules on TCM and its biomedical correlations:
- Spleen qi deficiency – The digestive system and the microbiome
- Phlegm-dampness – Metabolic syndrome, cell membranes and fatty acid metabolism
- Blood stagnation – Coagulation and thrombosis
He interweaves the principles of elemental endocrinology throughout the three modules by describing the five organ networks and their correlations in biomedicine. This helps bring the principles of TCM into immediate and practical clinical relevance for all practitioners. See more details about this intensive in the summary below.
10:00 AM – 3:00 PM
Ethnobotanical and Native Plant Field Study ($79)
David Winston, RH (AHG)
Limit: 30 people
Join this perennial outdoor favorite for a day with herbalist David Winston. It’s just a short walk from the UNC conference center to the Asheville Botanical Garden, home of over 200 species of native plants. Examine the unique flora of the southeastern mountains and hear stories of creation and the origin of medicine. Discover how the medicine, food and useful materials provided by the plants have nurtured the Native peoples and Appalachian settlers for millennia. Explore the healing power of the herbs, the water, the earth, the trees, and how you can make them a part of your life. This event fills every year so please register early!
1:00 PM – 5:15 PM
Intensive: Botanical Influences on Cell Membranes ($89)
Jillian Stansbury, ND
Cell biology is inextricably linked with genetics, pathology, epidemiology, epistemology, taxonomy, and anthropology ― Siddhartha Mukherjee in his new book, The Song of the Cell: An Exploration of Medicine and the New Human
By understanding basic interactions on the level of the cell membranes, which are the mediators of all activity within the cell, we can become better at managing a host of conditions we see regularly as practitioners. This intensive investigates four of these interactions and the botanicals and pharmaceuticals acting on them: lipids/eicosanoids; glycoproteins/antivirals; ion channels/muscle relaxation and signal transduction/second messengers. Taken together, the parts of this intensive form a picture of just some of the ways cell membranes have direct effects on health. See more details about this intensive in the summary below.
1:00 PM – 5:00 PM
Ecology, Propagation and Cultivation of Native and Oriental Medicinal Herbs at Mountain Gardens ($69)
Limit: 20 people
Mountain Gardens is a forty-year-old botanical garden of useful plants incorporating the largest collection of medicinal herbs in the eastern US. We are located adjacent to National Forest land at the base of the highest mountains in the east, and most of the important native medicinals are growing here naturally (the rest have become established). In addition many herbs have been introduced from North America, Europe and, especially, East Asia.
Please note the new schedule beginning Friday, June 2 at 6:30 PM!
The main symposium begins on Friday evening. All events listed below, including the reception and keynote, are included in the basic registration fee.
6:30 PM – 7:30 PM
Welcome Reception with music
Come join the fun!
7:30 PM – 8:00 PM
Opening meeting with speaker introductions
Meet the weekend’s speakers and find out more about them.
8:00 PM – 9:30 PM
Keynote Address: Plants, People and Places, A Web of Life
Medicinal plants, the people who work with them and the places where they grow form a trio. In fact, the world of beneficial medicinal plants is an entire bustling web of life. In places far and wide men and women of all backgrounds and talents work with herbs by the millions, whether in arid deserts or lush rainforests. There are many ways we can make the entire botanical chain of trade more sustainable and more humane. With rare images and first-hand stories we’ll explore some popular and highly beneficial medicinal plants, where they come from, and who works with them, for an ultimate insider’s tour.
Speakers and Topics
Lise Alschuler, ND
A naturopathic doctor with board certification in naturopathic oncology, Lise Alschuler has been practicing since 1994. She graduated from Brown University with an undergraduate degree in Medical Anthropology and received a doctoral degree in naturopathic medicine from Bastyr University. Dr. Alschuler is past-President of the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians and a founding board member and current President of the Oncology Association of Naturopathic Physicians. She is currently an independent consultant in the area of practitioner and consumer health education. More about Lise Alschuler.
- Clinical Applications of Medicinal Mushrooms with Botanicals
- Botanical Stress Support
Rebecca Beyer, MA
Rebecca Beyer is the woman behind the Blood and Spicebush School of Old Craft. She lives in the mountains of Western North Carolina, where she manages a homestead and teaches traditional witchcraft, foraging, and Appalachian folk medicine. She has a BS in Plant and Soil science from the University of Vermont and a Masters in Appalachian Studies and Sustainability, concentrating in Appalachian Ethnobotany at Appalachian State University. She is also a member of the Association of Foragers. She spends her days trying to learn what her ancestors did and finding ways to share traditional skills while tackling cultural appropriation and the complexities of living in the modern world. More about Rebecca Beyer.
- Outdoor Walk: Appalachian Folk Uses of Local Plants
Teresa Boardwine, RH (AHG)
Green Comfort School of Herbal Medicine in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia, is where Teresa Boardwine offers classes, consultations, and online access to her workshops. She has been teaching her hands-on medicine-making classes for over 20 years. More about Teresa Boardwine.
- Bitters as Therapeutic Tonics
- Home Herbal Day Spa: Techniques and Formulas
Mary Bove, ND
A clinical medical herbalist, Mary Bove had a practice in family medicine in Brattleboro, Vermont for over 20 years. where she assisted at the birth of a whole generation of children. She is the author of An Encyclopedia of Natural Healing for Children and Infants, and co-author of Herbs for Women’s Health. Since starting her herbal journey at age 18, Mary has held firm to three tenets: “Walk your talk, believe in the plants and practice herbalism every day in your life.” More about Mary Bove.
- Senescence, Senolytics, and Aging
- Simplicity of Simples in Botanical Medicine
Doug and Todd Elliott
For many years Doug earned his living as a traveling herbalist collecting and selling herbs, teas and old-time remedies. Along with healing plants, Doug searches out old-timers and elders from various cultures. From these bearers of tradition, he has assembled an extensive body of knowledge of the botanical aspects of plants, their history, legends, and lore; their uses in various cultures, medicinal properties, food value, as well as other practical ways we can use wild plants every day. More about Doug Elliott.
- Two herb walks
Joe Hollis has lectured, consulted and taught workshops in medicinal herb identification, cultivation and processing at Mountain Gardens and at various colleges and conferences in North Carolina for over 30 years. Mountain Gardens sells its seeds, plants and preparations at herb fairs and medicinal herb conferences, and via the internet. More about Joe Hollis.
1. Friday, 1:00 – 5:00 PM: Ecology, Propagation and Cultivation of Native and Oriental Medicinal Herbs at Mountain Gardens ($69)
Chris Kilham is a medicine hunter, author, educator and TV personality who promotes natural, plant-based medicines, sustainable botanical trade and indigenous cultures. He has conducted ethnobotanical plant research in 45 countries and lectures worldwide about holistic wellness and botanical medicines. Chris helps to develop and popularize traditional medicinal plants, including kava, maca, rhodiola, ashwagandha, ayahuasca, and hundreds of others.
Chris has been featured in The New York Times, Outside Magazine, Forbes, Psychology Today, The Wall Street Journal, Newsweek, CNN, NBC Nightly News, The Dr. Oz Show, Fox News Health, ABC Good Morning America, ABC Nightline, and many other top-tier media venues. He has written 15 books, including The Ayahuasca Test Pilots Handbook, The Five Tibetans, and his latest, The Lotus and the Bud: Cannabis, Consciousness, and Yoga Practice. The New York Times calls Chris “Part David Attenborough, part Indiana Jones.” More about Chris Kilham.
- Keynote Address: Plants, People and Places, A Web of Life
- Peru’s Sacred Plant Boom and Sustainability
Kat Maier, RH (AHG)
A practicing herbalist for over twenty years, Kat Maier is currently director of Sacred Plant Traditions in Charlottesville, Virginia where she offers a three-year clinical/community herbalist training program. She began studying plants in the Peace Corps in Chile. More about Kat Maier.
- We Are All Stardust – Trace Elements as Foundational Building Blocks of Health
- Plant Walk: Establishing Plant Relations
Jason Miller, DACM, LAc
Jason Miller, DACM, LAc, practices botanical and nutritional medicine, acupuncture, and Asian bodywork at his clinic, Jade Mountain Medicine, in Ashland, Oregon. He received his master’s degree in Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine from the Oregon College of Oriental Medicine in 2005 and completed a postgraduate internship at the “House of Celebrity Doctors” in Nanjing, China. He earned his Doctorate of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine from the Pacific College of Oriental Medicine in 2018. His approach bridges the frameworks of traditional and modern medicine in the management of chronic disease. At Jade Mountain, he specializes in the management of cancer, diabetes and neuromuscular disorders. More about Jason Miller.
- Friday Morning Intensive: Bridging the Gap between Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Modern Biomedical Analysis ($89)
- The Essence/Genetics Parallel: From Congenital to Post-Congenital – From Digital to Analog
Kenneth Proefrock, NMD
A naturopathic physician practicing in Sun City, Arizona, Kenneth Proefrock specializes in difficult-to-treat conditions in his clinic, Total Wellness. He is the Vice President of the North American Board of Naturopathic Examiners and chair of the biochemistry portion of the naturopathic physician’s licensing exam. His lectures combine a detailed understanding of biochemistry and physiology with a passion for plant medicine. More about Kenneth Proefrock.
- Tempting Fate: Tropane Alkaloids: From the History of Pharmacy to the Modern Practice of Botanical Medicine
- Case Studies in the Naturopathic Treatment of Neurodegenerative Conditions
Katie Stage, ND, RH (AHG)
Katie Stage is a naturopathic physician practicing at the SCNM clinic in Tempe. She is a full-time faculty member at SCNM, teaching botanical medicine, hydrotherapy, GYN lab, and clinical skills. More about Katie Stage.
Jillian Stansbury, ND
Jillian Stansbury is a naturopathic physician who has been practicing in SW Washington State for over 30 years, specializing in women’s health, mental health, and chronic disease. She holds undergraduate degrees in Medical Illustration and Medical Assisting and graduated with honors in both programs. She was the chair of the botanical medicine department at the National University of Natural Medicine for over 20 years. Jill has recently published five herbal formularies for health professionals, comprehensive, practical reference manuals for herbalists, physicians, nurses, and allied health professionals More about Jillian Stansbury.
- Friday Afternoon Intensive: Botanical Influences on Cell Membranes ($89)
- Mast Cells – Their Roles in Health and Disease and Botanical Affectors
- Thought Disorders – A Survey of the Safety of Botanical Medicines in Schizophrenia
Marc Williams, MA
Ethnobiologist Marc Williams has taught hundreds of classes to thousands of people about plants, humans, other life forms and their interface. His training includes a B.A. in Environmental Studies/Sustainable Agriculture from Warren Wilson College with a minor in Business and a M.A. in Appalachian Studies/Sustainable Development from Appalachian State University with a minor in Planning/Geography. He has spent over 20 years working at various restaurants, farms, and travels throughout 30 countries in Central/North/South America, Europe and all 50 states in the USA. More about Marc Williams.
- Demonstration: Invasivorism – Making Tasty Food from some Challenging Weeds
- Outdoor Walk: Identifying and Using Appalachian Medicinal Plants
David Winston, RH (AHG)
David Winston is an Herbalist and Ethnobotanist with 54 years of training in Chinese, Western/Eclectic and Southeastern herbal traditions. He has been in clinical practice for 47 years and is an herbal consultant to physicians, herbalists and researchers throughout the USA, Europe and Canada. David is the founder/director of the Herbal Therapeutics Research Library and the dean of David Winston’s Center for Herbal Studies, a two-year training program in clinical herbal medicine. He is an internationally known lecturer and frequently teaches at medical schools, professional symposia and herb conferences. He is the president of Herbalist & Alchemist, Inc. a manufacturer that produces herbal products that blend the art and science of the world’s great herbal traditions. More about David Winston can be located at Herbal Studies.
- Friday Field Study: Ethnobotanical and Native Plant Field Study ($79)
- Bringing Down the Numbers – The Herbal/Nutritional Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia and Hypertension
Donald Yance, CN, RH (AHG)
Donnie Yance, RH (AHG) is a clinical master herbalist and certified nutritionist who is internationally recognized for his comprehensive knowledge and understanding of the healing properties of plants and nutrition. Donnie conducts his clinical practice at the Mederi Center in Ashland, Oregon, utilizing his unique integrative model known as the Eclectic Triphasic Medical System, which he evolved over more than twenty years of successful patient care. More about Donald Yance.
- Medicinal Mushrooms in Oncology: Everything You Need to Know About Mushrooms and Cancer
- Aging and the Immune System: Using Botanical and Dietary Compounds for Immune Enhancement and Clearance of Senescent Cells to Combat Aging, Infection, and Chronic Disease
Lodging, Meal and Travel Information
All inclusive lodging and meal packages start at $343 total for two nights’ lodging and 6 meals. Commuter meals are also available for $109 for the weekend.
Alternate Lodging in Asheville: View list
Before May 11, symposium and intensive fees will be refunded minus $50 processing fee per registrant. No refunds can be given after May 11, 2023. Please make all refund requests by email.
Continuing Education Information
Continuing Education Credits
(Hours listed below include attendance at Friday events)
- Naturopathic Physicians: Application to be submitted for up to 37.5 hours (OBNM)
- Acupuncturists: Application to be submitted for up to 22 PDA for live event only (NCCAOM)
- Nursing: Application to be submitted (TBA)
We will post application status and details of approvals as they are available. Number of credits depends on which lectures are attended.
CE Questions? Contact us and we’ll be happy to help.
Lecture notes are compiled into an online book (proceedings) which is available to all registrants at no cost. Before the event, registrants will be sent a link and password to access the digital notes online.
The exhibit hall will take place in the hallways of Highsmith Union this year, right in the heart of all the activity! You can shop and browse between sessions and during breaks without leaving the main building.
If you’re interested in being an exhibitor, please contact us.
Detailed Summaries of Friday Intensives
Friday, June 4
9:00 AM – 12:00 PM
Morning Intensive: Management of Complex Chronic Disease: Combining TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) Concepts with Modern Biomedical Analysis ($89)
Jason Miller, DACM, LAc
As a Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine and an advanced practitioner of botanical and nutritional medicine based on biomedical testing and research, Jason Miller is uniquely qualified to bridge the gap between TCM macroecology and modern medical analysis. In this intensive he presents a series of three modules on TCM and its biomedical correlations:
Blood Stagnation – Coagulation, and Thrombosis
The TCM diagnosis of Blood Stagnation is made based on the observation of a number of specific factors in the overall physiological assessment of the patient. When coupled with a biomedical assessment of a specific set of coagulation-related biomarkers, physiological targets become more specific, and synergistic therapies can be applied effectively. In this section, we’ll cover key blood stagnation related biomarkers, their utility and application for specific conditions (including cancer), and key therapeutic strategies to address them. We will cover interventions from several toolboxes, including: botanical and nutritional medicine, diet and lifestyle, as well as pharmaceutical agents, with special focus on the integration of therapies from multiple toolboxes into synergistic protocols.
Spleen Qi Deficiency, the Digestive System, and the Microbiome: From deep in antiquity, the TCM term, “Spleen Qi Deficiency” has been used to describe a set of symptoms that is encountered frequently in the clinic today. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been identified as a major factor in a host of modern chronic diseases, and in TCM theory, all chronic disease stems from dysfunction of the Qi. The Spleen Organ Network is a functional network, and includes functional aspects of the stomach, spleen, duodenum, and pancreas. It is literally in the center of our bodies. Through elegant and complex interactions between many interwoven systems, the Spleen refines what we eat, transforming our food into tiny, bioavailable metabolites that supply our body with nutritive Qi, Essence, and nutrition. This action is achieved through the complex interaction of many specific enzymes, the microbiota, and the diverse community of cells that make-up the human GI tract.
Heat, Cold and the Nerve Force
In Eclectic Medicine, the nerve force was defined as being sthenic, or asthenic, depending on whether the nervous energy was high or low respectively. Treatments were directed based on using agents of the opposing nature to resolve conditions. We will review some of the most powerful plant medicines for addressing the nerve force, including Gelsemium, Aconite (both napellus and carmichaeli), Belladonna, Cayenne, and In TCM, Hot conditions are Yang in nature, making them more rapid in their onset and more likely to be associated with hyperactivity of the nervous system, whereas Cold conditions are just the opposite. In this section we will explore Heat and Cold as pathogenic factors, how to properly identify them in the clinical setting, and how to address them using herbal medicines of the appropriate nature.
The Essence/Genetics Parallel: From Congenital to Post-Congenital – From Digital to Analog
Genes are expressed through complex interactions with the environment in which they exist. They do not express themselves in a vacuum. Gene expression flows from genotype through epigenetics, to phenotype. The analog interface of our DNA with the environment is known as epigenetics, and through the interactions of the genome with the ecosystem in which it exists, epigenetics determines phenotype – the outward expression of the organism. In this section we will explore the TCM concept of Jing/Essence: the role it plays in determining health span, how to identify Essence deficiency in Taoist terms, and how to overlay the study of modern genetics onto the macroecological assessment and energetic diagnosis of the patient. We will review key SNP’s and their metabolic pathways, and how the application of synergistic herbal and nutritional medicine formulas can alter gene expression and support the overall health of our patients.
Phlegm-Dampness, Metabolic Syndrome, Cell Membranes, and Fatty Acid Metabolism: For centuries, doctors of Taoist medicine have identified the pattern of phlegm/dampness in their patients. The diagnosis is made based on an extensive physical exam, thorough questioning, and an observation of the tongue and pulse. The existence of Phlegm-Damp Syndrome, often accompanied by Liver Qi Stagnation and Spleen Qi Deficiency, parallels the biomedical diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is defined as the existence of the following factors: hypertension, high blood sugar and insulin levels, excess body fat around the waist, plus abnormal cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels. The biomedical standard of care approach to understanding lipid metabolism and its role in cardiovascular health is often based on a superficial assessment. In this section we will delve into the complex set of factors that influence lipid metabolism, the health of the cell membrane, the cardiovascular network, and how to address them.
Elemental Endocrinology: The Five Organ Networks and Biomedicine
The contents of this section will be woven throughout the intensive, and we will close with an overview of the biomedical correlations with the TCM Five Organ Networks. We will look at physiological function, organic organs versus functional networks, and we will overlay symptoms with biomarkers.
Friday, June 4
1:00 PM – 5:15 PM
Afternoon Intensive: Botanical Influences on Cell Membranes ($89)
Jillian Stansbury, ND
Understanding the basic interactions on the level of the cell membrane can help us manage a host of different conditions and understand why our therapies work, and how to wean patients from pharmaceuticals in favor of botanicals and other natural substances with similar effects.
This intensive presents an overview of four influences on cell membranes and their therapeutic applications:
1) Lipids & Eicosanoids: Omega 3 and 6 fatty acids are versatile anti-inflammatory agents used to make eicosanoids (compounds derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are involved in cellular activity). These lipids are used to synthesize prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes with profound impact on allergies, chronic disease, and inflammatory cascades. Important botanical sources of membrane lipids are reviewed along with the clinical application for allergic disorders, neurodegeneration and vascular disease.
2) Glycoproteins & Antiviral Drugs – Whisker-like glycoprotein chains project outward from cell surfaces and play important roles in cell to cell communication, pattern recognition and the entry of various substances into cells. Viruses, for example, may trick some cells into allowing them entry by binding glycoprotein receptors. Metabolic diseases such as diabetes involve gumming up of glycoproteins in a manner that interferes with cell function. A survey of important glycoprotein mechanisms and relevant herbal and drug affectors are reviewed.
3) Ion Channels & Muscle Relaxation – Ion channels control the flow of sodium, calcium, potassium and chloride through the cell membrane and are especially important to the function of nerve and heart muscle cells. Many botanical medicines calm electrical excitability and relax spastic muscles via effects at ion channels. Common pharmaceuticals for hypertension and arrhythmias are used as examples along with botanical agents useful as hypotensive agents and muscle relaxants.
4) Signal Transduction & 2nd Messengers – The domino-cascade sequence of steps that allow cell surface events to create appropriate responses inside the cell is referred to as “signal transduction”. Cells capable of very rapid response possess second messengers such as G proteins or cyclic AMP that speed the delivery of cell surface phenomena. Botanical agents that improve metabolic rate, heart function, and other cellular responses via enhancing signal transduction are explored.
Taken together, the parts of this intensive form a picture of just some of the ways cell membranes have direct effects on health.